Aircraft aerodynamics, structures and systems

Basic Module 13

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This module is required for the following AML categories:


Issued on Regulation (EU) 2018/1142

  • (a) Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls
    • Operation and effect of:
      • roll control: ailerons and spoilers;
      • pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence stabilisers and canards; and
      • yaw control: rudder limiters;
    • Control using elevons, ruddervators;
    • High lift devices: slots, slats, flaps;
    • Drag inducing devices: spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes; and
    • Operation and effect of trim tabs, servo tabs and control surface bias.
  • (b) High Speed Flight
    • Speed of sound, subsonic flight, transonic flight, supersonic flight;
    • Mach number, critical Mach number.
  • (c) Rotary Wing Aerodynamics
    • Terminology;
    • Operation and effect of cyclic, collective and anti-torque controls.
  • Fundamentals of Structural Systems
  • Zonal and Station Identification Systems
  • Electrical bonding
  • Lightning strike protection provision.
  • (a)
    • Fundamentals of automatic flight control including working principles and current terminology;
    • Command signal processing;
    • Modes of operation: roll, pitch and yaw channels;
    • Yaw dampers;
    • Stability Augmentation System in helicopters;
    • Automatic trim control;
    • Autopilot navigation aids interface;
  • (b)
    • Autothrottle systems;
    • Automatic landing systems: principles and categories, modes of operation, approach, glideslope, land, go-around, system monitors and failure conditions.
  • (a)
    • Fundamentals of radio wave propagation, antennas, transmission lines, communication,
      receiver and transmitter;
    • Working principles of following systems:
      • Very High Frequency (VHF) communication;
      • High Frequency (HF) communication;
      • Audio;
      • Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs);
      • Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR);
      • Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR);
      • Automatic Direction Finding (ADF);
      • Instrument Landing System (ILS);
      • Flight Director Systems (FDSs), Distance Measuring Equipment (DME);
      • Area navigation, RNAV systems;
      • Flight Management Systems (FMSs);
      • Global Positioning System (GPS), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs);
      • Data Link.
  • (b)
    • Air Traffic Control transponder, secondary surveillance radar;
    • Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS);
    • Weather avoidance radar;
    • Radio altimeter;
    • Automatic Dependent Surveillance — Broadcast (ADS-B).
  • (c)
    • Microwave Landing System (MLS);
    • Very Low Frequency and hyperbolic navigation (VLF/Omega);
    • Doppler navigation;
    • Inertial Navigation System (INS);
    • ARINC (Aircraft Radio Incorporated) communication and reporting.
  • Batteries installation and operation;
  • Direct Current (DC) power generation;
  • Alternating Current (AC) power generation;
  • Emergency power generation;
  • Voltage regulation;
  • Power distribution;
  • Inverters, transformers, rectifiers;
  • Circuit protection;
  • External/Ground power.
  • Electronic emergency equipment requirements;
  • Cabin entertainment equipment.
  • (a)
    • Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, spoiler;
    • Trim control;
    • Active load control;
    • High lift devices;
    • Lift dump, speed brakes;
    • System operation: manual, hydraulic, pneumatic;
    • Artificial feel, Yaw damper, Mach trim, rudder limiter, gust locks;
    • Stall protection systems.
  • (b)
    • System operation: electrical, fly-by-wire.
  • Classification;
  • Atmosphere;
  • Terminology;
  • Pressure-measuring devices and systems;
  • Pitot-static systems;
  • Altimeters;
  • Vertical-speed indicators;
  • Airspeed indicators;
  • Machmeters;
  • Altitude-reporting/alerting systems;
  • Air data computers;
  • Instrument pneumatic systems;
  • Direct-reading pressure and temperature gauges;
  • Temperature-indicating systems;
  • Fuel-quantity-indicating systems;
  • Gyroscopic principles;
  • Artificial horizons;
  • Slip indicators;
  • Directional gyros;
  • Ground Proximity Warning Systems (GPWSs);
  • Compass systems;
  • Flight Data Recording Systems (FDRSs);
  • Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFISs);
  • Instrument warning systems including master warning systems and centralised warning panels;
  • Stall warning systems and angle of attack-indicating systems;
  • Vibration measurement and indication;
  • Glass cockpit.
  • External: navigation, landing, taxiing, ice;
  • Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;
  • Emergency.
  • Central maintenance computers;
  • Data-loading system;
  • Electronic-library system;
  • Printing system;
  • Structure-monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring).
  • Air supply
    • Sources of air supply including engine bleed, APU and ground cart;
  • Air Conditioning
    • Air-conditioning systems;
    • Air cycle and vapour cycle machines;
    • Distribution systems;
    • Flow, temperature and humidity control system.
  • Pressurisation
    • Pressurisation systems;
    • Control and indication including control and safety valves;
    • Cabin pressure controllers.
  • Safety and warning devices
    • Protection and warning devices.
  • (a)
    • Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
    • Fire-extinguishing systems;
    • System tests;
  • (b)
    • Portable fire extinguisher.
  • System layout;
  • Fuel tanks;
  • Supply systems;
  • Dumping, venting and draining;
  • Cross feed and transfer;
  • Indications and warnings;
  • Refuelling and defuelling;
  • Longitudinal-balance fuel systems.
  • System layout;
  • Hydraulic fluids;
  • Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
  • Pressure generation: electrical, mechanical, pneumatic;
  • Emergency pressure generation;
  • Filters;
  • Pressure control;
  • Power distribution;
  • Indication and warning systems;
  • Interface with other systems.
  • Ice formation, classification and detection;
  • Anti-icing systems: electrical, hot-air and chemical;
  • De-icing systems: electrical, hot-air, pneumatic, chemical;
  • Rain-repellent;
  • Probe and drain-heating;
  • Wiper systems.
  • Construction, shock absorbing;
  • Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
  • Indications and warnings;
  • Wheels, brakes, antiskid and automatic braking systems;
  • Tyres;
  • Steering;
  • Air-ground sensing.
  • System layout: cockpit, cabin;
  • Sources, storage, charging and distribution;
  • Supply regulation;
  • Indications and warnings.
  • System layout;
  • Sources: engine/APU, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
  • Pressure control;
  • Distribution;
  • Indications and warnings;
  • Interfaces with other systems.
  • Water system layout, supply, distribution, servicing and draining;
  • Toilet system layout, flushing and servicing.
  • Core system;
    Network components.
    Note: Functions that may be typically integrated into the IMA modules are among others:
    • bleed management;
    • air pressure control;
    • air ventilation and control;
    • avionics and cockpit ventilation control, temperature control;
    • air traffic communication;
    • avionics communication router;
    • electrical load management;
    • circuit breaker monitoring;
    • electrical system Built-In Test Equipment (BITE);
    • fuel management;
    • braking control;
    • steering control;
    • landing gear extension and retraction;
    • tyre pressure indication;
    • oleo pressure indication;
    • brake temperature monitoring.

The units and components which furnish a means of entertaining the passengers and providing communication within the aircraft (Cabin Intercommunication Data System (CIDS)) and between the aircraft cabin and ground stations (Cabin Network Service (CNS)). They include voice, data, music and video transmissions.

CIDS provides an interface between cockpit/cabin crew and cabin systems. These systems support data exchange between the different related Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) and they are typically operated via Flight Attendant Panels (FAPs).

CNS typically consists of a server, interfacing with, among others, the following systems:

  • Data/Radio Communication;
  • Cabin Core System (CCS);
  • In-flight Entertainment System (IFES);
  • External Communication System (ECS);
  • Cabin Mass Memory System (CMMS);
  • Cabin Monitoring System (CMS);
  • Miscellaneous Cabin Systems (MCSs).

CNS may host functions such as:

  • access to pre-departure/departure reports;
  • e-mail/intranet/internet access;
  • passenger database.

The units and components which furnish a means of storing, updating and retrieving
digital information traditionally provided on paper, microfilm or microfiche. They include
units that are dedicated to the information storage and retrieval function such as the
electronic library mass storage and controller, but they do not include units or
components installed for other uses and shared with other systems, such as flight deck
printer or general-use display.

Typical examples include:

  • Air Traffic and Information Management systems and Network Server systems.
  • Aircraft general information system;
  • Flight deck information system;
  • Maintenance information system;
  • Passenger cabin information system;
  • Miscellaneous information systems.


  • AML Cat B2
    180 multi-choice and 0 essay questions.
    Time allowed: 225 minutes.
    Questions and time allowed may be split into two examinations, as appropriate.

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