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Turbine aeroplane aerodynamics, structures and systems

Basic Module 11

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Applicability

This module is required for the following AML categories:

M11A

M11B

M11C

Topics

M11A

Issued on Regulation (EU) 2018/1142

  • Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls
    • Operation and effect of:
      • roll control: ailerons and spoilers,
      • pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence stabilisers and canards,
      • yaw control, rudder limiters;
    • Control using elevons, ruddervators;
    • High lift devices, slots, slats, flaps, flaperons;
    • Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes;
    • Effects of wing fences, saw tooth leading edges;
    • Boundary layer control using, vortex generators, stall wedges or leading edge devices;
    • Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and antibalance (leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass balance, control surface bias, aerodynamic balance panels.
  • High Speed Flight
    • Speed of sound, subsonic flight, transonic flight, supersonic flight;
    • Mach number, critical Mach number, compressibility buffet, shock wave, aerodynamic heating, area rule;
    • Factors affecting airflow in engine intakes of high speed aircraft;
    • Effects of sweepback on critical Mach number.
  • (a)
    • Airworthiness requirements for structural strength;
    • Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary;
    • Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts;
    • Zonal and station identification systems;
    • Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion, tension, hoop stress, fatigue;
    • Drains and ventilation provisions;
    • System installation provisions;
    • Lightning strike protection provision;
    • Aircraft bonding.
  • (b)
    • Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage, formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads, frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor structures, reinforcement, methods of skinning, anti-corrosive protection, wing, empennage and engine attachments;
    • Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding;
    • Methods of surface protection, such as chromating, anodising, painting;
    • Surface cleaning;
    • Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.
  • Fuselage (ATA 52/53/56)
    • Construction and pressurisation sealing;
    • Wing, stabiliser, pylon and undercarriage attachments;
    • Seat installation and cargo loading system;
    • Doors and emergency exits: construction, mechanisms, operation and safety devices;
    • Windows and windscreen construction and mechanisms.
  • Wings (ATA 57)
    • Construction;
    • Fuel storage;
    • Landing gear, pylon, control surface and high lift/drag attachments.
  • Stabilisers (ATA 55)
    • Construction;
    • Control surface attachment.
  • Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55/57)
    • Construction and attachment;
    • Balancing — mass and aerodynamic.
  • Nacelles/Pylons (ATA 54)
    • Nacelles/Pylons:
      • Construction,
      • Firewalls,
      • Engine mounts.
  • Air supply
    • Sources of air supply including engine bleed, APU and ground cart.
  • Air Conditioning
    • Air conditioning systems;
    • Air cycle and vapour cycle machines;
    • Distribution systems;
    • Flow, temperature and humidity control system.
  • Pressurisation
    • Pressurisation systems;
    • Control and indication including control and safety valves;
    • Cabin pressure controllers.
  • Safety and warning devices
    • Protection and warning devices.
  • Instrument Systems (ATA 31)
    • Pitot static: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator;
    • Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator, horizontal situation indicator, turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator;
    • Compasses: direct reading, remote reading;
    • Angle of attack indication, stall warning systems;
    • Glass cockpit;
    • Other aircraft system indication.
  • Avionic Systems
    • Fundamentals of system lay-outs and operation of:
      • Auto Flight (ATA 22),
      • Communications (ATA 23),
      • Navigation Systems (ATA 34).
  • Batteries Installation and Operation;
  • DC power generation;
  • AC power generation;
  • Emergency power generation;
  • Voltage regulation;
  • Power distribution;
  • Inverters, transformers, rectifiers;
  • Circuit protection;
  • External/Ground power.
  • (a)
    • Emergency equipment requirements;
    • Seats, harnesses and belts.
  • (b)
    • Cabin lay-out;
    • Equipment lay-out;
    • Cabin Furnishing installation;
    • Cabin entertainment equipment;
    • Galley installation;
    • Cargo handling and retention equipment;
    • Airstairs.
  • (a)
    • Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
    • Fire extinguishing systems;
    • System tests;
  • (b)
    • Portable fire extinguisher.
  • Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, spoiler;
  • Trim control;
  • Active load control;
  • High lift devices;
  • Lift dump, speed brakes;
  • System operation: manual, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, fly-by-wire;
  • Artificial feel, Yaw damper, Mach trim, rudder limiter, gust lock systems;
  • Balancing and rigging;
  • Stall protection/warning system.
  • System lay-out;
  • Fuel tanks;
  • Supply systems;
  • Dumping, venting and draining;
  • Cross-feed and transfer;
  • Indications and warnings;
  • Refuelling and defuelling;
  • Longitudinal balance fuel systems.
  • System lay-out;
  • Hydraulic fluids;
  • Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
  • Pressure generation: electric, mechanical, pneumatic;
  • Emergency pressure generation;
  • Filters;
  • Pressure Control;
  • Power distribution;
  • Indication and warning systems;
  • Interface with other systems.
  • Ice formation, classification and detection;
  • Anti-icing systems: electrical, hot air and chemical;
  • De-icing systems: electrical, hot air, pneumatic and chemical;
  • Rain repellent;
  • Probe and drain heating;
  • Wiper systems.
  • Construction, shock absorbing;
  • Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
  • Indications and warning;
  • Wheels, brakes, antiskid and autobraking;
  • Tyres;
  • Steering;
  • Air-ground sensing.
  • External: navigation, anti collision, landing, taxiing, ice;
  • Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;
  • Emergency.
  • System lay-out: cockpit, cabin;
  • Sources, storage, charging and distribution;
  • Supply regulation;
  • Indications and warnings.
  • System lay-out;
  • Sources: engine/APU (Auxiliary Power Unit), compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
  • Pressure and vacuum pumps;
  • Pressure control;
  • Distribution;
  • Indications and warnings;
  • Interfaces with other systems.
  • Water system lay-out, supply, distribution, servicing and draining;
  • Toilet system lay-out, flushing and servicing;
  • Corrosion aspects.
  • Central maintenance computers;
  • Data loading system;
  • Electronic library system;
  • Printing;
  • Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring).
  • Functions that may be typically integrated in the Integrated Modular Avionic (IMA)
    modules are, among others:
    • Bleed Management, Air Pressure Control, Air Ventilation and Control, Avionics and
      Cockpit Ventilation Control, Temperature Control, Air Traffic Communication,
      Avionics Communication Router, Electrical Load Management, Circuit Breaker
      Monitoring, Electrical System BITE, Fuel Management, Braking Control, Steering
      Control, Landing Gear Extension and Retraction, Tyre Pressure Indication, Oleo
      Pressure Indication, Brake Temperature Monitoring, etc.
  • Core System; Network Components.

The units and components which furnish a means of entertaining the passengers
and providing communication within the aircraft (Cabin Intercommunication Data
System (CIDS)) and between the aircraft cabin and ground stations (Cabin Network
Service (CNS)). They include voice, data, music and video transmissions.

CIDS provides an interface between cockpit/cabin crew and cabin systems. These
systems support data exchange between the different related Line Replaceable
Units (LRUs) and they are typically operated via Flight Attendant Panels (FAPs).

CNS typically consists of a server, interfacing with, among others, the following
systems:

  • Data/Radio Communication;
  • Cabin Core System (CCS);
  • In-flight Entertainment System (IFES);
  • External Communication System (ECS);
  • Cabin Mass Memory System (CMMS);
  • Cabin Monitoring System (CMS);
  • Miscellaneous Cabin Systems (MCSs).

CNS may host functions such as:

  • access to pre-departure/departure reports;
  • e-mail/intranet/internet access; passenger database.

The units and components which furnish a means of storing, updating and retrieving
digital information traditionally provided on paper, microfilm or microfiche. Includes
units that are dedicated to the information storage and retrieval function such as
the electronic library mass storage and controller. Does not include units or
components installed for other uses and shared with other systems, such as flight
deck printer or general use display.

Typical examples include Air Traffic and Information Management Systems and
Network Server Systems

  • Aircraft General Information System;
  • Flight Deck Information System;
  • Maintenance Information System;
  • Passenger Cabin Information System;
  • Miscellaneous Information System.

Examination

  • AML Cat B1.1
    140 multi-choice and 0 essay questions.
    Time allowed: 175 minutes.