Helicopter aerodynamics, structures and systems

Basic Module 12

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This module is required for the following AML categories:


Issued on Regulation (EU) 2018/1142

  • Terminology;
  • Effects of gyroscopic precession;
  • Torque reaction and directional control;
  • Dissymmetry of lift, Blade tip stall;
  • Translating tendency and its correction;
  • Coriolis effect and compensation;
  • Vortex ring state, power settling, overpitching;
  • Auto-rotation;
  • Ground effect.
  • Cyclic control;
  • Collective control;
  • Swashplate;
  • Yaw control: Anti-Torque Control, Tail rotor, bleed air;
  • Main Rotor Head: Design and Operation features;
  • Blade Dampers: Function and construction;
  • Rotor Blades: Main and tail rotor blade construction and attachment;
  • Trim control, fixed and adjustable stabilisers;
  • System operation: manual, hydraulic, electrical and fly-by-wire;
  • Artificial feel;
  • Balancing and rigging.
  • Rotor alignment;
  • Main and tail rotor tracking;
  • Static and dynamic balancing;
  • Vibration types, vibration reduction methods;
  • Ground resonance.
  • Gear boxes, main and tail rotors;
  • Clutches, free wheel units and rotor brake;
  • Tail rotor drive shafts, flexible couplings, bearings, vibration dampers and bearing hangers.
  • (a)
    • Airworthiness requirements for structural strength;
    • Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary;
    • Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts;
    • Zonal and station identification systems;
    • Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion, tension, hoop stress, fatigue;
    • Drains and ventilation provisions;
    • System installation provisions;
    • Lightning strike protection provision;
  • (b)
    • Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage, formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads, frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor structures, reinforcement, methods of skinning and anti-corrosive protection.
    • Pylon, stabiliser and undercarriage attachments;
    • Seat installation;
    • Doors: construction, mechanisms, operation and safety devices;
    • Windows and windscreen construction;
    • Fuel storage;
    • Firewalls;
    • Engine mounts;
    • Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding;
    • Methods of surface protection, such as chromating, anodising, painting;
    • Surface cleaning.
    • Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.
  • Air supply
    • Sources of air supply including engine bleed and ground cart.
  • Air conditioning
    • Air conditioning systems;
    • Distribution systems;
    • Flow and temperature control systems;
    • Protection and warning devices.
  • Instrument Systems (ATA 31)
    • Pitot static: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator;
    • Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator, horizontal situation indicator, turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator;
    • Compasses: direct reading, remote reading;
    • Vibration indicating systems — HUMS;
    • Glass cockpit;
    • Other aircraft system indication.
  • Avionic Systems
    • Fundamentals of system layouts and operation of:
      • Auto Flight (ATA 22);
      • Communications (ATA 23);
      • Navigation Systems (ATA 34).
  • Batteries Installation and Operation;
  • DC power generation, AC power generation;
  • Emergency power generation;
  • Voltage regulation, Circuit protection.
  • Power distribution;
  • Inverters, transformers, rectifiers;
  • External/Ground power.
  • (a)
    • Emergency equipment requirements;
    • Seats, harnesses and belts;
    • Lifting systems;
  • (b)
    • Emergency flotation systems;
    • Cabin lay-out, cargo retention;
    • Equipment lay-out;
    • Cabin Furnishing Installation.
  • Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
  • Fire extinguishing systems;
  • System tests
  • System lay-out;
  • Fuel tanks;
  • Supply systems;
  • Dumping, venting and draining;
  • Cross-feed and transfer;
  • Indications and warnings;
  • Refuelling and defuelling.
  • System lay-out;
  • Hydraulic fluids;
  • Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
  • Pressure generation: electric, mechanical, pneumatic;
  • Emergency pressure generation;
  • Filters;
  • Pressure Control;
  • Power distribution;
  • Indication and warning systems;
  • Interface with other systems.
  • Ice formation, classification and detection;
  • Anti-icing and De-icing systems: electrical, hot air and chemical;
  • Rain repellent and removal;
  • Probe and drain heating;
  • Wiper system.
  • Construction, shock absorbing;
  • Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
  • Indications and warning;
  • Wheels, Tyres, brakes;
  • Steering;
  • Air-ground sensing;
  • Skids, floats.
  • External: navigation, landing, taxiing, ice;
  • Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;
  • Emergency.
  • System lay-out;
  • Sources: engine/APU, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
  • Pressure and vacuum pumps;
  • Pressure control;
  • Distribution;
  • Indications and warnings;
  • Interfaces with other systems.
  • Functions that may be typically integrated in the Integrated Modular Avionic
    (IMA) modules are, among others:
    • Bleed Management, Air Pressure Control, Air Ventilation and Control, Avionics
      and Cockpit Ventilation Control, Temperature Control, Air Traffic
      Communication, Avionics Communication Router, Electrical Load
      Management, Circuit Breaker Monitoring, Electrical System BITE, Fuel
      Management, Braking Control, Steering Control, Landing Gear Extension and
      Retraction, Tyre Pressure Indication, Oleo Pressure Indication, Brake Temperature Monitoring, etc.
  • Core System;
  • Network Components.
  • Central maintenance computers;
  • Data loading system;
  • Electronic library system;
  • Printing;
  • Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring).

The units and components which furnish a means of storing, updating and
retrieving digital information traditionally provided on paper, microfilm or
microfiche. Includes units that are dedicated to the information storage and
retrieval function such as the electronic library mass storage and controller.
Does not include units or components installed for other uses and shared with
other systems, such as flight deck printer or general use display.

  • Typical examples include Air Traffic and Information Management Systems and Network Server Systems.
  • Aircraft General Information System;
  • Flight Deck Information System;
  • Maintenance Information System;
  • Passenger Cabin Information System;
  • Miscellaneous Information System.


  • AML Cat B1.3
    128 multi-choice and 0 essay questions.
    Time allowed: 160 minutes.

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