Digital techniques / Electronic instrument systems

Basic Module 5

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This module is required for the following AML categories:


Issued on Regulation (EU) 2018/1142

  • Typical systems arrangements and cockpit layout of electronic instrument systems.
  • Numbering systems: binary, octal and hexadecimal;
  • Demonstration of conversions between the decimal and binary, octal and hexadecimal systems and vice versa.
  • Analogue Data, Digital Data;
  • Operation and application of analogue to digital, and digital to analogue converters, inputs and outputs, limitations of various types.
  • Operation of data buses in aircraft systems, including knowledge of ARINC and other specifications.
  • Aircraft Network/Ethernet.
  • (A)
    • Identification of common logic gate symbols, tables and equivalent circuits;
    • Applications used for aircraft systems, schematic diagrams.
  • (B)
    • Interpretation of logic diagrams.
  • (A)
    • Computer terminology (including bit, byte, software, hardware, CPU, IC, and various memory devices such as RAM, ROM, PROM);
    • Computer technology (as applied in aircraft systems).
  • (B)
    • Computer related terminology;
    • Operation, layout and interface of the major components in a micro computer including their associated bus systems;
    • Information contained in single and multiaddress instruction words;
    • Memory associated terms;
    • Operation of typical memory devices;
    • Operation, advantages and disadvantages of the various data storage systems.
  • Functions performed and overall operation of a microprocessor;
  • Basic operation of each of the following microprocessor elements: control and processing unit, clock, register, arithmetic logic unit.
  • Operation and use of encoders and decoders;
  • Function of encoder types;
  • Uses of medium, large and very large scale integration.
  • Operation, application and identification in logic diagrams of multiplexers and demultiplexers.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of fibre optic data transmission over electrical wire propagation;
  • Fibre optic data bus;
  • Fibre optic related terms;
  • Terminations;
  • Couplers, control terminals, remote terminals;
  • Application of fibre optics in aircraft systems.
  • Principles of operation of common types of displays used in modern aircraft, including Cathode Ray Tubes, Light
  • Emitting Diodes and Liquid Crystal Display.
  • Special handling of components sensitive to electrostatic discharges;
  • Awareness of risks and possible damage, component and personnel anti-static protection devices.
  • Awareness of restrictions, airworthiness requirements and possible catastrophic effects of unapproved changes to software programmes.
  • Influence of the following phenomena on maintenance practices for electronic system:
    • EMC-Electromagnetic Compatibility
    • EMI-Electromagnetic Interference
    • HIRF-High Intensity Radiated Field Lightning/lightning protection.

General arrangement of typical electronic/digital aircraft systems and associated BITE (Built In Test Equipment) such as:

  • (A) For B1 and B2 only:
    • ACARS-ARINC Communication and Addressing and Reporting System
    • EICAS-Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System
    • FBW-Fly-by-Wire
    • FMS-Flight Management System
    • IRS-Inertial Reference System;
  • (B) For B1, B2 and B3:
    • ECAM-Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring
    • EFIS-Electronic Flight Instrument System
    • GPS-Global Positioning System
    • TCAS-Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System
    • Integrated Modular Avionics
    • Cabin Systems
    • Information Systems.


  • AML Cat B1.1 & B1.3
    40 multi-choice and 0 essay questions.
    Time allowed: 50 minutes.
  • AML Cat B2
    72 multi-choice and 0 essay questions.
    Time allowed: 90 minutes.

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