Electronic fundamentals

Basic Module 4

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This module is required for the following AML categories:


Issued on Regulation (EU) 2018/1142

  • Diodes
    • (A)
      • Diode symbols;
      • Diode characteristics and properties;
      • Diodes in series and parallel;
      • Main characteristics and use of silicon controlled rectifiers (thyristors), light emitting diode, photo conductive diode, varistor, rectifier diodes;
      • Functional testing of diodes.
    • (B)
      • Materials, electron configuration, electrical properties;
      • P and N type materials: effects of impurities on conduction, majority and minority characters;
      • PN junction in a semiconductor, development of a potential across a PN junction in unbiased, forward biased and reverse biased conditions;
      • Diode parameters: peak inverse voltage, maximum forward current, temperature, frequency, leakage current, power dissipation;
      • Operation and function of diodes in the following circuits: clippers, clampers, full and half wave rectifiers, bridge rectifiers, voltage doublers and triplers;
      • Detailed operation and characteristics of the following devices: silicon controlled rectifier (thyristor), light emitting diode, Schottky diode, photo conductive diode, varactor diode, varistor, rectifier diodes, Zener diode.
  • Transistors
    • (A)
      • Transistor symbols;
      • Component description and orientation;
      • Transistor characteristics and properties.
    • (B)
      • Construction and operation of PNP and NPN transistors;
      • Base, collector and emitter configurations;
      • Testing of transistors;
      • Basic appreciation of other transistor types and their uses;
      • Application of transistors: classes of amplifier (A, B, C);
      • Simple circuits including: bias, decoupling, feedback and stabilisation;
      • Multistage circuit principles: cascades, push-pull, oscillators, multivibrators, flip-flop circuits.
  • Integrated Circuits
    • (A)
      • Description and operation of logic circuits and linear circuits/operational amplifiers;
    • (B)
      • Description and operation of logic circuits and linear circuits;
      • Introduction to operation and function of an operational amplifier used as: integrator, differentiator, voltage follower, comparator;
      • Operation and amplifier stages connecting methods: resistive capacitive, inductive (transformer), inductive resistive (IR), direct;
      • Advantages and disadvantages of positive and negative feedback.
  • Description and use of printed circuit boards.
  • (A)
    • Understanding of the following terms: Open and closed loop systems, feedback, follow up, analogue transducers;
    • Principles of operation and use of the following synchro system components/features: resolvers, differential, control and torque, transformers, inductance and capacitance transmitters;
  • (B)
    • Understanding of the following terms: Open and closed loop, follow up, servomechanism, analogue, transducer, null, damping, feedback, deadband;
    • Construction operation and use of the following synchro system components: resolvers, differential, control and torque, E and I transformers, inductance transmitters, capacitance transmitters, synchronous transmitters;
    • Servomechanism defects, reversal of synchro leads, hunting.


  • AML Cat B1
    20 multi-choice and 0 essay questions.
    Time allowed: 25 minutes.
  • AML Cat B2
    40 multi-choice and 0 essay questions.
    Time allowed: 50 minutes.

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